Vincent Willem van Gogh, 1853-1890, was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter who had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art, died aged 37 from a gunshot wound self-inflicted. Many of best-known van Gogh paintings such as Sunflowers
were completed during the last two years of his life. The artist was seen as one of the greatest and most recognizable painters in history. Those van Gogh art were sold for over US$100 million include Portrait of Dr. Gachet, Portrait of Joseph Roulin, and Irises. Van Gogh Self Portrait
with Bandaged Ear was sold for an estimated US$80-$90 million. -- The Copyright of Scripts is Reserved by Toperfect. -- Read van Gogh's biography >>
van Gogh Biography
Vincent Willem van Gogh (born 30 March 1853 in Groot-Zundert (Netherlands) and died 29 July 1890 in Auvers-sur-Oise, France) is a Dutch painter and draughtsman. His work full of naturalism, inspired by Impressionism and Fastidiousness, heralds Fauvismism and expressionism.
Van Gogh grew up in a family of the former bourgeoisie. He first tried to make a career as an art dealer at Gillis & Cie. However, refusing to see art as a commodity, it is dismissed. He aspired to become a pastor, but he failed the theological exams. As he approached 1880, he turned to painting. During these years he left the Netherlands for Belgium and then settled in France. Self-taught, Van Gogh nevertheless takes painting classes. Passionate, he continues to enrich his pictorial culture: he analyzes the work of the painters of the time, he visits museums and art galleries, he exchanges ideas with his friends painters, he studies Japanese prints, English engravings, etc. His painting reflects his research and the extent of his artistic knowledge. However, his life is dotted with crises that reveal his mental instability. One of them causes her suicide, at the age of 37 years.
Van Gogh's abundant correspondence makes it easier to understand him. It consists of more than eight hundred letters written to her family and friends, including six hundred and Fifty-two sent to his brother "Theo" Note 3, with whom he maintains a sustained relationship both on a personal and professional level.
Van Gogh's work consists of more than two thousand paintings and drawings dating mainly from the years 1880. It echoes the European artistic milieu of the late nineteenth century. He was influenced by his painter friends, including Tuna van Rappard, Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin. He also exchanged points of view with his brother Theo, a well-known art dealer. He admired Jean-François Millet, Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Anton Mauve and Eugène Delacroix, while drawing inspiration from Hiroshige, Claude Monet, Adolphe Monticelli, Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas and Paul Signac.
Little known in the years 1890, Van Gogh was only noticed by a small number of authors and painters in France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark. However, in the years 1930, his works attracted a hundred and twenty thousand people to an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. He is now considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
Vincent van Gogh's family
Top: His father Theodorus Van Gogh and his mother Anna Cornelia Van Gogh (née Carbentus)
Below: Vincent Willem, Anna Cornelia, Theo, Elisabetha Huberta, Willemina Jacoba and Cornelis Vincent.
The Van Gogh family, of the former bourgeoisie, is already notable in the 16th and 17th centuries. The state of pastor is a FamilialeWM tradition 1, as is the art trade. Vincent's grandfather (1789-1874), for example, took courses at the faculty of Theology at the University of Leiden until 1811. Three of his sons became art dealers.
Vincent Willem Van Gogh was born on 30 March 1853 in Groot-Zundert, a village near Breda in the west of North Brabant, in the south of the Netherlands. His mother gave birth to a stillborn child on 30 March 1852: Vincent Willem I, whose first name he was. He is the eldest son of Theodorus van Gogh, pastor of the Reformed Church in Groot-Zundert since 1849, and of Anna Cornelia, née Carbentus, daughter of a replacer of the court of the Duchy of Brabant. His parents raised six children: Vincent, Anna Cornelia (1855-1930), Theodore ("Theo"), Elisabetha Huberta ("Liss", 1859-1936), Willemina Jacoba ("Wil" or "Wilkie", 1862-1941) and Cornelis Vincent ("Cor", 1867-1900).
His father Theodorus has ten siblings. Many paternal uncles will play a decisive role in Vincent's life. Hendrik Vincent van Gogh, "Hein", is an art dealer in Brussels. Johannes van Gogh, "Jan", was admiral and received Vincent at his home in Amsterdam for over a year. Cornelis Marinus van Gogh, "Cor", is also an art dealer. His godfather Vincent van Gogh, "Cent", joined the chain of galleries of the Parisian art editor, Gillis & Cie.
1853 – 1869
Van Gogh's family leads a simple life. The laborious atmosphere of the parental home deeply marks young Vincent, who is a serious, silent and thoughtful child.
In January 1861, Vincent Van Gogh entered the school of Zundert, whose membership was two hundred students. From 1861, he and his sister Anna follow the teachings of a teacher who teaches at home until October 1, 1864, when he leaves for the boarding school of Jan Provily in Zevenbergen, a town attached to the commune of Moerdijk in Trento Miles from home. He learns French, English and German. He also made his first attempts at drawing. On September 15, 1866, he entered the Collège Guillaume II in Tilburg. Vincent hardly saw that distance. In March 1868, he hurriedly left the establishment and returned to his parents in Zundert.
On July 30, 1869, at the age of 16, Vincent left the family home to become an apprentice at Gillis & Cie in The Hague, a subsidiary founded by his uncle Hein. This international firm that sells paintings, drawings and reproductions, is then led by Hermanus Tersteeg, for whom the artist had a great respect. In 1871, his father was transferred to Helvoirt. Vincent spends his holidays there in 1872, before visiting Theo in Brussels.
After his apprenticeship training, he was hired at Gillis & Cie. In June 1873, Adolphe Gillis sent him to the London branch with the agreement of his uncle Hundred. According to Theo's future wife, Johanna Bonger "Jo", this is the happiest period of her vie6. He succeeds, and at the age of 20 he earns more than his father. He falls in love with Eugénie rent, the daughter of his landlady in Brixton, but when he reveals her feelings, she confesses that she has already secretly engaged with the previous tenant. Van Gogh is isolating himself more and more. At the same time he developed a fervent interest in religion. His religious zeal took on proportions that worried his family. On November 12, 1873, Theo was transferred to the Hague branch by his uncle Cent.
His father and uncle sent Vincent to Paris in mid-May 1875, at the head office of Gillis & Cie at 9 Rue Chaptal. Shocked to see art treated as a product and a commodity, he talks to some customers, which causes his dismissal on April 1, 1876. Meanwhile, the Van Gogh family moved to the village of North Brabant.
Van Gogh then feels a spiritual and religious vocation. He returned to England where, for some time, he worked voluntarily, first as a substitute teacher in a small boarding school overlooking the port of Ramsgate, where he was hired. He's drawing some sketches of the city. To his brother Theo, he writes, "in London, I often stopped to draw on the banks of the Thames when I came back from Southampton Street in the evening, and it did not come to anything; I would have had someone explain the perspective to me. As the school later moved to Isleworth in Middlesex, Van Gogh decided to go there. But the move finally does not take place. He remained on the spot, became a fervent Methodist animator and wanted to "preach the gospel everywhere." At the end of October 1876, he delivered his first sermon at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Richmond. In November, he was hired as an assistant at the Congregational Church in Turnham Green.
At Christmas 1876, he returned to his parents. His family encouraged him to work in a bookstore in Dordrecht in the Netherlands for a few months. However, he is not happy. He spends most of his time in the shop's back to draw or translate Bible passages in English, French and German. His letters include more and more religious texts. His roommate at the time, a young professor called Görlitz, later explained that Van Gogh fed sparingly: He did not eat meat, just a small piece on Sunday, and only after our landlord had long Insisted. Four potatoes with a hint of sauce and a mouthful of vegetables were his dinner. »
Supporting him in his desire to become a pastor, his family sent him in May 1877 to Amsterdam, where he stayed with his uncle Jan, who was admiral. Vincent prepares for the university and studies theology with his respected theologian Uncle Johannes Stricker. He's failing his exams. He then left his uncle Jan's home in July 1878 to return to his family home. He studied for three months at the Protestant school in Laeken, near Brussels, but he failed again and abandoned his studies to become a secular preacher. In early December 1878, he obtained a mission from Evangelisten Belgium, to the coal miners of Borinage, in the region of Mons. There he became a preacher in solidarity with the struggles against the employers, but he had already done his pictorial learning by having visited all the major museums of the important cities he had travelled to when he was working at Gillis & Cie.
Its crossing of the Borinage in Belgium begins at pastures (today in the commune of Colfontaine) in 1878. He was greeted by an evangelist who installed him at a farmer's house in Wasmes. Soon he judged this House to be too luxurious and in August he left for Cuesmes to stay with another evangelist. Going to the end of his convictions, Van Gogh decides to live as those with whom he preaches, sharing their difficulties, until sleeping on the straw in a small hut.
He dedicates everything to miners and their families. It even goes so far as to descend into a mine well of the colliery of Marcasse, at 700 meters deep. During a firedamp, he saves a minor. But his work as a worker pastor was soon to be disapproved, which shocked him. Accused of being a leader, he was forced to abandon the mission — suspended by the Evangelism Committee — that he had given himself. He keeps the image of the human misery that will appear in part of his work. After these events, he went to Brussels and then returned briefly to Cuesmes, where he moved to a house. But, under pressure from his parents, he goes back to his. He remained idle until March 1880, increasing his family's concern. Vincent and Theo argue about his future: these tensions deprive them of communication for almost a year.
Moreover, a serious conflict erupts between Vincent and his father, the latter going so far as to inquire to have his son admitted to the asylum of Geel. He fled again and took refuge in Cuesmes, where he lodged until October 1880 in a minor. Meanwhile, Theo gets a steady job at Gillis & Cie in Paris.
Van Gogh reached maturity when he began his career as an artist. He is increasingly interested in his loved ones and the daily scenes that he begins to portray in sketches at the graphite, charcoal or pencil. In October 1880 he left for Brussels and on 15 November 1880 he enrolled in the Royal Academy of Fine Arts on the advice of the painter Willem Roelofs. He has the opportunity to work at the atelier of the painter, Perthon van Rappard, rue Transverse. On February 1, 1881, Theo was appointed manager of the Gillis & Cie branch on the Boulevard Montmartre; He decided to provide for his brother's needs. Vincent is almost 28 years old.
At the end of April 1881, Van Gogh returned to the family home and stayed there until Christmas. He spends his time mainly on reading and studying figures. In the summer he falls in love with Kee Vos, the daughter of his uncle Stricker. Despite the clear refusal of Kee, a recent widow, Vincent insists, creating an increasingly tense atmosphere in his family.
Following a violent dispute with his father, he left for The Hague, where he moved to a modest workshop. He received painting lessons from his cousin by marriage, Anton Mauve (husband of his ex-cousin Germaine Ariëtte Carbentus), then practised essentially watercolour and studied perspective.
In January 1881, Van Gogh met a former prostitute, his Hoornik, who started posing for him. In the spring of 1882, his uncle Cornelis Marinus, owner of a famous art gallery in Amsterdam, commissioned drawings from The Hague. The work does not live up to the expectations of his uncle, who nevertheless passes him a second order. Although he described to him in detail what he expected of him, he is again disappointed. In June 1882, hospitalization linked to a venereal disease allowed him to reconcile with his parents.
Upon his release, he moved to a larger workshop with his Hoornik and his two children. It was during the summer of 1882 that he began oil painting. This period of his life allows him to devote himself to his art. He shares his reflections on painters he admires as Daumer or Jean-François Millet whose works he knows well. He runs many paintings and drawings according to different techniques. He sent his works to Theo and wrote to Tuna van Rappard. From the spring of 1883, he was interested in more elaborate compositions based on drawing. Very few of these drawings survived because, lacking in nervousness and freshness according to Theo, they will be destroyed by Vincent.
The twenty months he spends in The Hague (between 1882 and 1883) seem decisive for the artist, who realizes his willingness to break with the moral conventions of his social milieu, and his inability to lead a normal existence. Many readings, Honoré de Balzac, Victor Hugo, Émile Zola and Charles Dickens, enrich his vision of the world and reinforce his social convictions. In August 1883, he plans to go to the rural province of Drenthe to enjoy his landscapes. His relationship with his Hoornik ends then.
From September to December 1883, Vincent stayed alone in the province of Drenthe, in the north of the Netherlands, where he was relentless in his painting. It is the only remedy he finds in the face of a profound sense of distress. He often changes housing and loneliness weighs him down. The rainy weather and the financial difficulties of his brother Theo decided to join his family since June 1882 in Nuenen, North Brabant, in the paternal presbytery.
Van Gogh takes advantage of a small workshop designed for him in the family home. He produced series of paintings on various themes, including the Weavers. It is in Nuenen that his talent proves definitive: from this time date powerful studies with the black stone of peasants at work, but also some two hundred paintings with the dark palette and expressive brush strokes, which then confirm his talent of Cartoonist and painter.
Vincent proposes that Theo not pay him any more pension but rather to exchange his payments against his paintings. Theo thus acquires paintings he hopes to sell. Vincent continues to see Van Rappard with whom he paints. At this time he also gives painting classes to amateurs. Then, in May 1884, he rented a wider workshop than he had hitherto.
For the third time, Van Gogh falls in love. He begins a relationship with his neighbour, Margot Begemann, what their respective families do not appreciate. In mid-September, Margot tries to commit suicide. She spends her convalescent period in Utrecht. On March 26, 1885, Father Van Gogh died of a heart attack. Because of the difficult relationships he has with his entourage, Vincent's sister asks him to leave the presbytery. He then lived in his studio between April and May 1885.
While still in Nuenen, he works on a series of paintings that have to decorate the dining room of one of his friends living in Eindhoven. Van Gogh then became interested in the renowned artists of The Hague school, such as Théophile de Bock and Herman Johannes van der Weele. It is a group of artists who, between 1860 and 1890, are strongly influenced by the realistic painting of the school of Barbizon. Among these artists, Johan Hendrik Weissenbruch or Bernard Blommers, for example, are quoted in Van Gogh's letters in his discussions on art. He did not hesitate to comment on Rembrandt and Frans Hals by discussing their works.
At the same time Émile Zola was an art critic. In 1885, when his novel Germinal was published, Van Gogh painted potato eaters. They both expose the life of the popular class. After his stay in Nuenen, moving from this dark realism to colorism, Van Gogh takes a new impetus in his painting. His palette becomes clearer and more colorful, while his brush strokes become sharper.
In Antwerp again, in November 1885, he was impressed by the paintings of Rubens and discovered the Japanese prints, which he began to collect in this city. It is also in the Flemish capital that the artist inaugurates his famous series of self-portraits. He takes various drawing courses and studies nudes. The idea of going back to Paris is nice. He already intends to study in Fernand Cormon's studio and to stay with Theo for economic issues. In February 1886, he arrived in Paris.
At the beginning of March 1886, Vincent joined his brother Theo in Montmartre, with the desire to learn about the novelties of Impressionist painting. At the time, Theo was manager of the Galerie Montmartre Boussod, Valadon & Cie (the successors of Gillis & Cie). Vincent also became the lover of Agostina Segatori, the Italian madam of cabaret Le tambourine, boulevard de Clichy. Only the knowledge of the Parisian artistic milieu can truly enable Van Gogh to renew and enrich his vision. That year is that of the last Impressionist exhibition that Vincent discovers, and in 1887 must take place the first retrospective of the work of Millet.
Paris is preparing to host several exhibitions: In addition to the exhibition, where the works of Puvis de Chavannes are exhibited, Van Gogh visits the halls of the Fifth International exhibition at the Galerie Georges Petit, which presents paintings by Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet. The latter had not wished to participate in the eighth and final exhibition of the Impressionists, which offered the spectacle of a torn group, between the defections and the new arrivals, and opened its doors to the novelty of the moment, the Neo-Impressionism, with the canvas of Georges Pierre Seurat, on a Sunday afternoon at the island of La Grande Jatte.
In Paris in the years 1886-1887, Van Gogh frequented the Academy of the painter Cormon, where he met Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Louis Anquetin, Émile Bernard and John Peter Russell. The latter carries out his portrait. He also met, through his brother, almost all the Impressionists, especially Georges Seurat and Camille Pissarro, as well as Paul Gauguin. In the shop of Father Tanguy, he became the friend of Paul Signac. Under the influence of Japanese prints, his compositions gradually acquired more freedom and fluency, while he tried the technique of colorful solid. Pissarro also introduces him to new theories on light and divisionist treatment of tones. The artist's palette is then enriched with bright colors and his touch is animated and fragmented, thanks also to Signac with whom he works in 1887.
Exalted by the fervour of the Parisian artistic climate, Van Gogh burns the stages of his artistic renewal thanks to the frequentation of the most unconformist painters of the moment: he tries to neo-Impressionism with Signac and Pissarro, investigating The psychological depths of the portrait with his friend Toulouse-Lautrec, is early informed of the synthesis of the cloisonnisme by his companions Louis Anquetin and Émile Bernard, and can appreciate the exotic paintings made by Gauguin in Martinique. Regenerated by this modernity, he is ready to realise his Mediterranean dream, in search of the blinding light of Provence, which makes the pure colours of nature, studied until then in his collection of Japanese prints, shine. It is a very fertile period where his art is oriented towards Impressionism, but absinthe and fatigue aggravate his mental state. On February 19, 1888, he left Paris.
On February 20, 1888, he moved to Arles, in the old town inside the ramparts at the hotel-restaurant Carrel, at 30, rue de la Cavalerie, at the time neighbourhood of brothels, with as companion the Danish painter Christian mourner-Petersen. He also rented part of the "Yellow House" to make his workshop. A few days later, he lodged at the Café de la Gare, 30, place Lamartine and then settled, starting on 17 September, in the Yellow House, just next door, destroyed during the Allied bombardment of Arles on 25 June 1944.
Although he arrives in the city with a time of snow, a new page of his work opens with the discovery of the Provençal light. From 22 February 1888, he began his production L'Arlésienne: He walked the region and painted landscapes, scenes of harvests and portraits. He always sends his paintings to Theo. Three of his first paintings are presented at the fourth annual exhibition of the Society of independent Artists. In April, Vincent meets the American painter Dodge MacKnight, who lives in Fontvieille, a small village northeast of Arles. By MacKnight, he met the painter Eugene Boch, with whom a deeper relationship developed and which he portrayed.
At the beginning of June 1888, having received a ticket of 100 francs from his brother Theo, he went on stage to the Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer for a five-day stay. He paints the friendship boat and the village grouped around the fortified church.
In Arles, older ideas on art and painting reappear, like making series of paintings. In the spring of 1888, he produced a series on flowering orchards in triptychs, as well as a series of portraits like those of the Ro family. The first series of sunflowers also dates from that time. In the meantime, he continued to exchange letters and paintings with Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin. Vincent, who lives in the yellow House, dreams indeed of a community of artists fraternally uniting their experiences and their research: Paul Gauguin joins him for this purpose on October 23, 1888 and they start working together, for example on the Series of tables devoted to Alyscamps. But the two men get along poorly: the constant tension and exaltation implied by their creative approach lead to a crisis.
On 23 December 1888, following a more violent dispute with Gauguin, Van Gogh was found in his bed with his left ear cut. Several theories attempt to explain the incident. The classic thesis, supported by the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam according to the testimony of Gauguin, explains that Van Gogh threatens a razor Gauguin who flees, leaving Van Gogh alone. In a delirium, this one turns the razor against himself and cuts his ear before going to offer it to an employee of the brothel nearby (16 years old, she could not be prostitute). Several possible diagnoses explain this madness access (see below).
The day after his seizure, Van Gogh was admitted to the hospital and cared for by Dr. Rey, whose portrait he painted. Theo, worried about his brother's health, comes to see him and returns to Paris on Christmas Day accompanied by Gauguin. However, a petition signed by thirty people calls for the internment or expulsion of Vincent van Gogh of Arles: He is accused of disturbances to public order. On February 7, Dr. Delon asked for his internment for "auditory and visual hallucinations". On 27 February, the police commissioner of D'ornano concluded in his report that Van Gogh could become dangerous to public safety. In March 1889, after a period of respite, he painted among other things in the bandaged ear. However, as a result of new crises, he was interned on the orders of the mayor at the hospital in Arles. In mid-April, he rented an apartment to Dr. Rey in another area of Arles. On April 18, 1889, Theo and Johanna Bonger married in Amsterdam.
During his stay in Arles, Vincent maintains the link with the Parisian artistic universe thanks to the abundant correspondence he exchanges with his brother Theo. Despite the failure of his project to establish a workshop in Arles, he did not renounce the dialogue with his friends Émile Bernard and Gauguin. The latter, after his eventful stay in Arles, accompanies through his letters the life of Van Gogh until the end.
Saint - Rémy - de - Provence
On 8 May 1889, he left Arles, having decided to enter the insane asylum of Saint-Paul-de-Mausolus, headed by the Doctor Théophile Peyron, in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. He remained there for one year, during which he had three major crises: in mid-July, in December and the last between February and March 1890.
Despite his poor health, Van Gogh is very productive. It is only during his attacks of dementia that he does not paint. In the asylum, a room on the ground floor is left as a workshop. He keeps sending his paintings to Theo. Two of his works are part of the 5th Annual exhibition of the Society of independent Artists of Paris. One of the earliest paintings of this period is the Iris. The paintings of this period are often characterized by swirls and spirals. At various times in his life, Van Gogh also painted what he saw from his window, especially at the end of his life with a large series of paintings of fields of wheat that he could admire from the room he occupied at the asylum of Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. He left the asylum on 19 May 1890.
Theo meets Dr. Paul Gachet on the recommendations of Pissarro. Theo encouraged Vincent to get out of the asylum and to go to Auvers-sur-Oise, where he could consult the doctor and be near his brother.
Van Gogh also begins to be known. In January 1890, an article by Albert Aurier in the Mercure de France underlines for the first time the importance of his research. A month later, the painter Anna Boch acquired one of his paintings, the Red Vine for the sum of 400 francs.
On January 31, 1890 was born the Little Vincent, son of his brother Theo. In the months preceding the coming to the world of this nephew and of which Vincent is the Godfather, he writes to Theo without ever mentioning the name of the child, naming him "the Little one". When the newborn falls ill without gravity, Vincent experiences sadness and discouragement.
After visiting Theo in Paris, Van Gogh moved to Auvers-sur-Oise, about 30 kilometres north-west of Paris. This rural commune of the French Vexin was already known in the midst of the painters, initially by the landscapers of the school of Barbizon, then by the Impressionists. He spends the last 70 days of his life, from May 20 to July 29, 1890. Dr. Paul Gachet promised to take care of him at Theo's request. Gachet, friend of Paul Cézanne and impressionist painters and himself an amateur painter, watches over Van Gogh, who rents a small room no. 5 in the Auberge Ravoux (en), for 3.50 francs a day.
Van Gogh, at the height of his artistic mastery, will then describe in his works the Peasant life and the architecture of this commune. Articles appear in the press in Paris, Brussels and the Netherlands. This is an important sign of his recognition in this artistic milieu. Thanks to the care of Dr. Gachet, his activity is intense: he paints more than 70 paintings. On the other hand, Theo, whose illness continues, entrusts him with his concern for his work and for the sick little Vincent Willem. Theo wants to go back to the Netherlands.
* Death of Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh's mental instability resumed towards the end of July 1890. On Sunday, July 27, 1890, in a field behind the castle where he paints perhaps an ultimate canvas, because he took his painting equipment with him, he shoots a revolver in the chest (to aim at the heart) or in the abdomen. Income limp at the Auberge Ravoux (en), he climbs directly into his room. His moans draw the attention of the innkeeper Arthur Ravoux who discovers him wounded: he brings the Doctor Gachet who makes him a summary bandage (a surgical operation is impossible given the state of medicine at that time) and dispatch to Paris Anton Hirschig (en), Dutch artist resident of his inn, to warn Theo van Gogh. Vincent van Gogh died there two days later, at the age of 37 years, his brother Theo being at his bedside.
Theo, suffering from syphilis and his neurological complications, was hospitalized in October 1890 in a psychiatric clinic in Utrecht, where he died on 25 January 1891 at the age of 34 years. The two brothers are both based in the cemetery of Auvers-sur-Oise, since Johanna van Gogh-Bonger transferred the body of her first husband to his brother in 1914.
In 2011, a new hypothesis on the death of Vincent van Gogh was advanced by two authors, Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith, who take up a dubious anecdote of Victor Nemi: Vincent van Gogh was allegedly the victim of a bullet fired by the Brothers Gaston and René Secrétan, two teenagers he knew. The latter played "Cowboys" with a bad-bill weapon near the field where Van Gogh was walking. Before succumbing two days later, the painter would then have decided to take all the responsibility for the act by declaring himself concerned, in order to protect the boys and for love for his brother Theo, for which he thought he had become a burden Too heavy.
This thesis is based on three arguments: Vincent van Gogh would have been the pain of the Secrétan brothers (interview with René Secrétan, who became a banker, given in 1956), the art historian John Rewald collected in the years 1930 auversoises rumors in this sense, but these testimonies are late and second-hand; Finally René Secrétan, whose American authors claim that the painter made a drawing disguised as a cowboy and who attended the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show in Paris at the beginning of the year 1890, would have stolen the revolver of the innkeeper Arthur Ravoux to shoot Birds and small animals, revolver33 the cause of manslaughter or accidental shooting on Vincent van Gogh.
van Gogh Paintings
Van Gogh worked hard to perfect his drawing and his painting, especially on the basis of books or textbooks. For example, he copied all the pages of Charles Bargue's drawing course. His painting is the result of a long, meticulous and hard work. He has tried several kinds of materials such as Black stone, lithographic chalk and reed Feather. He was sensitive and attentive to the artistic environment of the late nineteenth century. His style, which is characterized mainly by the use of colors and the touches of his brushes, has an important influence on the art of the twentieth century. Van Gogh's letters teach us the admiration of the latter for Rembrandt, Frans Hals, Eugène Delacroix, Jean-François Millet, but also for Anton Mauve, Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin. He was inspired by the Dutch masters of the seventeenth century. His paintings testify to his experience of quotidienne51 life and his paintings bear the mark of his restless and unstable personality. In particular, he made Potato Eaters (1885), Van Gogh's Room in Arles (1888), Sunflowers (1888-1889), self-portrait in the Bandaged Ear (1889), Starry Night (1889), Portrait of Doctor Gachet with Digital Branch (1890) and church of Auvers-sur-Oise (1890).
In the 21st century, paintings, works on paper, sketches and letters remain. Van Gogh has produced over 2 000 works of art: roughly 900 paintings and 1 100 drawings and sketches that span 10 years of work. He used to exchange his paintings with other painters, as was frequently done then, notably Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin.
Van Gogh's art has evolved constantly during his artistic career. For example, he is interested in Japanese prints and English engravings. He enjoys performing reproductions to which he wishes to make an original artistic contribution. He produced several series of paintings, including self-portraits and sunflowers. Moreover, it also gives an important place to the night tables. It applies colors by brush keys, without mixing on the palette. The colors melt away in the eye of the Spectator.
In the fall of 1882, Theo began financing Vincent so that he could develop his art serenely. At the beginning of the year 1883, he began to work on multi-figure compositions, especially drawings. According to Theo, this work lacks liveliness and freshness. Because of these comments, Vincent destroys them and turns to oil painting. At Nuenen, he made many large paintings but also destroyed them. Among the paintings of the time are the Potato eaters, the different heads of peasants and the various interpretations of the cottage.
Thinking that he lacks knowledge about the techniques of painting, he goes to Paris to continue to learn and develop his style. His tendency to develop the techniques and theories of Impressionists and neo-Impressionists lasts little. In Arles, Van Gogh uses old ideas. For example, he starts painting a series of paintings on similar subjects. The progression of his style is seen in his self-portraits. In 1884, at Nuenen, he had already worked on a series to decorate the dining room of one of his friends in Eindhoven. Still in Arles, he transformed his flowering orchards into triptychs. He produced another series on the rolled family and worked with Gauguin on the decoration of the Yellow House. The paintings made during the period of Saint-Rémy are often characterized by swirls and spirals. The brightness patterns of these last images were shown to conform to the Kolmogorov turbulence statistical model.
Art historian Albert Boime is one of the first to show that Van Gogh has been working on reality. For example, the house-painting under a sky nocturnemontre a White House at dusk with a prominent star, surrounded by a yellow halo. Astronomers at Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos have established that this star is Venus, very bright on the evening of June 16, 1890, the date of the creation of this painting.
Van Gogh has painted self-portraits several times. Many of these paintings are small in size: These essays allow him to experiment with the artistic techniques he discovers. His self-portraits reflect his choices and artistic ambitions that constantly evolve. The paintings vary in intensity and color and the artist represents himself with beard, without beard, with different hats, with his bandage which represents the period when he cut his ear, etc. Most of his self-portraits are made in Paris. All those made in Saint-Rémy-de-Provencemontrent are the head of the artist on the left, i.e. on the opposite side of the mutilated ear. Many of Van Gogh's self-portraits represent his face as reflected in a mirror, that is, his left-to-right side and right-hand side. It has been painted 37 times in all. However, during the last two months of his life in Auvers-sur-Oise, and despite his productivity, he did not paint any autoports. His own hairless face, which dates from the end of September 1889, is one of the most expensive paintings in the world, sold at 71.5 million in 1998 in New York.
Japanism, a style that developed in France especially in the second half of the nineteenth century with the opening of Japan to the west of the Meiji era, attracted Van Gogh since he was in Nuenen. Japanese masters like Hokusai and Hiroshige inspire him. He bought his first reproductions in Antwerp and conveyed his taste for this Asian art to his brother Theo. The two gather more than 400 works that are today at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam.
In Paris, Van Gogh wonders about the contribution of this art of great aesthetic quality in relation to his own works. It then executes several copies of the Japanese inserts. The courtier is the reproduction of a drawing he saw on the cover of Paris illustrated. He adds a background inspired by Japanese prints using intense colors. The plum blossom is another painting of this type: this time he interprets a work of Hiroshige. The background of Father Tanguy's portrait is also decorated with Japanese prints. Van Gogh has the habit of delineating planes or objects by black, a colour described as "non-colour" by the Impressionists, who almost systematically banish them from their palettes. It finds thus a justification for this practice in Japanese prints. Thereafter, he appropriated Japanese art, and confessed to his brother: all my work is a bit based on Japanese... »
This fascination for Japan will never leave him and during the last year of his life, Van Gogh would seek for example to meet a French painter named Louis Dumoulin after seeing several of his paintings inspired by a trip to Japan especially during the Great Exhibition organized in Champ-de-March in May 1890 by the National Society of Fine Arts. Two letters to the attention of his brother Theo, written while staying in Auvers-sur-Oise, expose his desire to meet Dumoulin (whom he writes "Demoulins") as "the one who makes Japan".
* Copies of Works
Vincent van Gogh not only likes to contemplate the reproductions of the works of art but he realizes it himself. His first reproduction dates back to Saint-Rémy-de-Provence: He copied a lithograph from the Pietà of Delacroix, the latter having been damaged. He also interprets several oil paintings in his own style. Between September 1889 and May 1890, he produced numerous works according to Delacroix, Rembrandt and Millet, including, from the latter, winter, the plain of Chailly. These are religious scenes and field workers. During the period when he was confined to a psychiatric asylum in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, he found in the reproduction of works a means of pursuing his work without a model; He had the means to use only himself as a model. He considers that the subject of a table is only one starting point and that the interpretation of the artist is the main contribution. He expresses this idea to his brother by the following words: I lay the white and black of Delacroix or Millet or according to them before me as motive. — and then I improvise color on it but of course not quite being me but looking for memories of their paintings — but the memory, the vague consonance of colors that are in the feeling, if not just — that's an interpretation to me. »
The painting the Sower, of Millet, is one of the characteristic examples illuminating Van Gogh's intentions for reproduction. We see the contribution of the use of color and the very personal brush strokes of Van Gogh. The result is more vivid, the personality of the artist is affirmed by the intensity of the colors applied.
* Series of van Gogh Works
Van Gogh has made several series of paintings. To refine his art, he likes to paint several paintings on similar subjects concerning nature: flowers, wheat fields, flowering orchards, etc. He also made series of portraits, especially by painting each member of the RO family or series of sedies. Van Gogh is particularly interested in painting flowers. He makes several landscapes with different flowers: lilacs, roses, laurels, etc. On some of his paintings, like Iris, we see them in the foreground. He made two sets of sunflowers: the first while he was in Paris in 1887, the second when he lived in Arles the following year. The first shows freshly picked sunflowers laid on the ground. In the second, sunflowers are in vases, sometimes fading. The flowers are painted by thick brush strokes with more paint.
Van Gogh's idea is to fill the walls of the workshop he wants to share with Paul Gauguin in order to create a community of artists: in the hope of living in a workshop with Gauguin, I would like to make a decoration for the workshop. Nothing but big sunflowers. Gauguin depicts in one of his paintings van Gogh painting sunflowers. Van Gogh is quite happy with the result showing him "tired and charged with electricity".
Van Gogh's Flower Orchard series is part of his early work in Arles. The paintings in this series are joyful. He spends a lot of time expressing the cheerfulness of spring. Vincent said to his brother: "I now have 10 orchards without counting three small studies and a large one of a cérisier that I have ereintée." In most of these paintings, a flowered tree is highlighted. He varies his brushstrokes: touches of dots, more velvety impressionistic impulses, flattening of features in the manner of Japanese prints. The intense tones fill his canvases, the more delicate color of the flowers occupies the visual.
One of the most famous series of paintings Van Gogh has done is that of cypress. These trees, characteristic of the landscapes of the south of France, Inspire Van Gogh. He writes to his brother: "The cypresses always worry me, I would like to make a thing like the paintings of sunflowers because it amazes me that they have not yet done as I see them". During the summer of 1889, at the request of his sister Wil, he also painted several small versions of wheat field with CYPRÈS4. These works are characterized by swirls and by a technique that allows him to keep visible the different layers of paint that he superimposes. The other tables in the series share the same stylistic elements. His painting, The Starry Night — which he paints when he is in Saint-Rémy-de-Provence — is part of this series.
* Night Paintings
The painting of the evening and nocturnal scenes is very common in Van Gogh who writes: "Often, it seems to me that the night is much more vivid and richly colored than the day." The importance it attaches to this period of the day can be seen when you consider the number of works it has painted to represent it. It most often evokes the harsh rural life, the peasants in their family intimacy or in full work, in the fields. Moreover, one of his most famous paintings, the terrace of the café in the evening, describes a city atmosphere.
For Van Gogh, the painters of his century succeeded in representing the dark by color. He reinterprets this subject in his paintings, drawing inspiration from several great painters. While in Breton and Millet he sees the essence of the representation of the work of the Earth, he is impressed by the success of Rembrandt to use color to paint at night. Through his works, Delacroix teaches him how vivid colors and contrasts of colors can describe sunsets, night falls, or even nights with their stars. As for Adolphe Monticelli, the color becomes for Van Gogh a way to judge the modernity of a painting. He appreciates the art of the Impressionist Monet, able to give the impression of an atmosphere evening by a sunset in red. He also admired Seurat's picky technique to evoke a nocturnal atmosphere, with stains and solids of colours.
Van Gogh is thus fascinated by the evening and nocturnal reality. The gradual disappearance of the light, an intense sunset, the twilight with the appearance of the artificial lights of the houses and the twinkling of the Stars and the moon in a dark sky, nourish its imagination and its creativity.
Van Gogh painted on canvases that were often already primed, that he could reuse, either by scratching the previous work or by covering it with a new layer. However, it used some unstable pigments, resulting in a change in color under the influence of light, including geranium lacquer that loses its red hue over time. The original colours are thus lost, resulting in difficulties of restoration: thus, the restaurateurs decided, for the room dating from 1888, not to "recolor" the painting, merely trying to stop the degradation and propose a Lighting with colorful filters to restore the original tints. In 2011, studies conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation facility in Grenoble identified a complex chemical reaction on cadmium yolk that lost the brightness of this color in some of Van Gogh's paintings.
Art Movements and Van Gogh
Van Gogh has experienced several styles in his artistic career. He ended up creating a style of his own. He believes that paintings can express emotion and that they are not just an imitation of reality.
Van Gogh discovers Impressionism in Paris. He adopts with exaltation the clear painting without giving up the circles of his figures. The three isolated artists, Van Gogh, Gauguin and Cézanne, all influenced a moment by Impressionism, constitute the major figures of the Impressionism. Van Gogh also influenced later and more modern painting, especially movements such as Expressionism and Fauvismism. Besides, in Provence, he works in a spirit that announces expressionism. He also contributes to the development of symbolism through his willingness to express emotion through his art.
Impressionism is a French pictorial movement born in the second half of the nineteenth century. The great battles of the past or the scenes of the Bible, which were hitherto the subjects of predilection of the painters, leave their place to subjects of daily life freely interpreted according to a personal vision. Bright colors and light plays are important in the eyes of the painters of this movement who are also looking for realism. They are interested in the study of the outdoors and make light the essential element of their paintings.
The impressionism embodied by Monet, Manet, Renoir, Degas (rather known for his framing and perspectives) is a starting point for the neo-Impressionism of Seurat and Signac, masters of the dots, for Gauguin and his school of Pont-Aven, for Bernard and his Cloisonnisme, for Toulouse-Lautrec, Van Gogh and for many "Impressionists", in France and abroad. The Van Gogh series of orchards, for example, shows a varied version of Impressionism with all its characteristics, i.e. the search for light and colour through the motifs of nature. These painters promote work outside. They exclude grays and blacks as much as possible. They give up the frontal point of view and the illusion of depth. Van Gogh's "impressionism" translates into the use of the effects of light, the reflections that express the luminous intensity of the moment. At home, colors are perceived in their complementary contrasts, for example, green and red Create a "complete" image. Some paintings by Van Gogh are placed at the exhibition of the independents with those of the other Impressionists. The artist insists that the paintings of the latter be known also in Holland and he is convinced that their value will eventually be recognized.
The young painters of the years 1880 are faced with the Postimpressionism that marks their time. They react in different ways. Until the end of the century, different innovative trends coexist. The Impressionism is the set of these artistic currents such as neo-Impressionism, symbolism, nabi movement, etc. In the history of the art Impressionism designates therefore a brief epoch. It includes Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec or Georges Seurat, whose ambition was to revolutionize the painting. The main common point of these painters is that they refused naturalism. Van Gogh admires the desire to surpass the representation of reality, as he writes to his brother about Cézanne:... it is necessary to feel the whole of a country... They were trying to convey more to their painting.
Through his paintings, Van Gogh dreams of expressing more than one image: his feelings. In Auvers-sur-Oise, he wrote to his brother Theo and his sister-in-law:... and I did not embarrass myself to seek to express sadness, extreme solitude. I would almost believe that these paintings will tell you what I do not know in words, what I see of healthy and fortifying in the countryside. »
The beginnings of Expressionism appeared in the last two decades of the nineteenth century, with precursors Van Gogh from the end of 1887, as well as Edvard Munch (notably the Cree), and James Ensor. However, the name "Expressionism" was used for the first time by art critic Wilhelm Worringer in August 1911. Van Gogh accentuates This movement after his arrival in Arles in 1888, where the clash of southern Light pushes him to conquer the colour: The starry night or the olive trees. Through dramatization of the scenes, simplification, even caricature, which characterise his work from the beginning to the end, he announces Expressionism, where the painters expose shamelessly the physical and moral misery.
The expressionists such as Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel and Oskar Kokoschka are inspired by Van Gogh's technique, the brutal brush stroke leaves a rough and gritty traces. According to Octave Mirbeau, one of Van Gogh's earliest admirers, "These forms multiply, échevèlent, twist, and even in the admirable madness of these skies , as far as the surgissements of these fantastic flowers Similar to demented birds, Van Gogh always keeps his admirable qualities as a painter.
Similarly, Van Gogh allows himself the freedom to modify the natural colors to promote the expression of these subjects. "I would like to portray a friend artist who dreams of big dreams. To finish it, I will now be arbitrary colorist. I exaggerate the blond hair, I arrive in shades orange, chrome, pale lemon. Behind the head, instead of painting the banal wall of the petty apartment, I make a simple background, the richest blue, The blond head illuminated on this rich blue background gets a mysterious effect, like the star in the deep Azure. »
The Fauvism is a French pictorial movement which is affirmed in particular between 1905 and 1907. Painters want to separate color and object, giving priority to the expression of colors. Van Gogh is one of the precursors. It has an influence on the tawny painters, showing a remarkable palette of colours, especially in its l'arlésienne period. During this period, Van Gogh no longer hesitated to use vivid colours and juxtapositions of unconventional tones with, in particular, the use of complementary shades. By this use of flamboyant colours, Van Gogh is one of the sources of inspiration for several tawny painters, such as Vlaminck or Derain. Thus, in the wild works, we find the same provisions of colors as at Van Gogh. For example, in the countryside part or the Seine at Chatou de Vlaminck, the proximity of red and green is accentuated as in the painting Van Gogh's Night Cafe.
Symbolism is an artistic movement which is expressed between 1886 and 1900 in several fields. Gustave Moreau, Eugène Carrière, Edward Burne-Jones and Martiros Sergeyevich Saryan are among the painters influencing this movement. Symbolism is a reaction to naturalism. It is a matter of "clothing the idea of a sensible form". The Symbolists do not faithfully paint the object, unlike the naturalists, but look for an impression, a sensation, which evokes an ideal world; They give preference to the expression of the states of soul. Symbols are used to achieve the "higher reality" of sensitivity.
In one of his letters, Van Gogh expresses what he thinks of symbolism: "... all reality is at the same time symbol." He also mentions the artists Millet and Lhermitte in relation to symbolism. This indicates his positive approach to symbolism and clarifies his own intentions and inspirations. He is devoted to reality, not to reality as in photographers, but to a symbolic reality.
The symbolism sought in the power of the verb "the essence of poetry i.e. pure poetry, that which will tell how the spirit and the world are made by revealing to it the ideal structure of the universe." The symbolism invites poetry to join the mystic. Van Gogh's quest is identical, as he wrote to his brother Theo: and in a picture I would say something consoling as a music. I would like to paint men or women with this I do not know what of eternal which formerly the Nimbus was the symbol and which we seek by the very radiation, by the vibration of our colors. Van Gogh borrows and prepares the trails of modern painting, from Impressionism to Expressionism.
* Contemporary Figuration
In 1986, the exhibition a hundred years ago Van Gogh arrived in Paris, at the Trianon of the Parc de Bagatelle, bringing together artists of the new figuration and narrative figuration (Frédéric Brandon, Gérard Le Chika, Michel Four, Gérard Guyomard, Christian Renonciat, Jack Vanarsky...), the intention stated by Jean-Luc blowtorch is to illuminate the influence of Vincent Van Gogh on contemporary figuration.
van Gogh's Reputation
Reflections on Van Gogh differ according to the point of view chosen. For example, Salvador Dalí expresses himself in 1972 about this painter he does not like : "Van Gogh is the shame of French painting and universal painting ..." For some, his life, worthy of a romantic hero, in fact a myth, that of the misunderstood artist or artist cursed . He is poor, depressed, antisocial, fiery, and so on. For others, Van Gogh is a complex, intelligent and cultured artist. His painting is "the fruit of a long, meticulous, hard work and referenced ". Whatever the point of view chosen, Van Gogh is a recognized and admired painter. In his last letter, found in his pocket on the day of his suicide, he wrote : "Well, really we can only talk about our paintings. "
For art historians, Van Gogh is a precursor who has opened new ways to painting. For example, Derain and Vlaminck are directly related to the art of Van Gogh, "by the use of pure colors in large touches " . For art lovers, he remains a master equal to Leonardo da Vinci or Rembrandt with a very important production and a long-lasting artistic trajectory and its styles. For the general public, his work is now available in the greatest museums .