Here are contemporary landscape art and famous landscape paintings by top artists, in subject matters of Aegean and Mediterranean, Beach Boat, Brook River Stream, Cityscape, Dockscape, Garden, Lake Pond Waterfall, Mountain, Plain Scenes, Snow, Warship, and Woods. You're suggested to click the subcategories at left to narrow the selections. Landscape painting
can be divided into schools of: classical
, realistic, abstract, modern, American, Russian, Dutch, and idyllic landscapes
; and into art forms of landscape oil painting, watercolor
, acrylic, and pastels. -- The Copyright of Scripts is Reserved by Toperfect.
Landscape painting is a figurative pictorial genre that represents the landscape.
Associated with other elements, narrative, allegorical or other, the landscape is found in the ancient Roman world, the miniatures of the Western Middle Ages, as well as in the Persian miniature and Indian painting.
In the west, the painted landscape becomes important in the Renaissance to situate the action of a religious or mythological subject; The taste for the landscape itself is in the seventeenth century in the north of Europe. The theory distinguishes between composite landscapes, which aim to produce the impression that a region gives by the pictorial composition of elements therein, and the "views" that present what is seen in a particular site. In the cultures of the Far East, the landscape, called "Shanshui" in China or Korea, and "Sumi-e" In Japan plays a central role in the painting of literate.
Landscape sensitivity and the "invention of scenery"
The word paysage appears in the French language only at the end of the sixteenth century, closely linked to the representation of the country. The same is the same in other European languages.
The landscape look was formed in the Western world in contact with pictorial art and its evolutions at the beginning of the modern era. The birth of the landscape is thus linked to a mediation by art, to a process of "artialisation" which can be twofold: in situ – the attention of the landscaper – and in visually – the painter's gaze. This mediation by art allows to move from the "zero level of the landscape", the "country", to the landscape itself; It is slow, diffuse, complex, often difficult to reconstruct, but always indispensable. This is said for those who persist in advocating the idea of a natural beauty. Thus, if a space is neither contemplated nor appreciated, its material presence is not enough to make it a landscape. In modern times, the aesthetic feeling in front of a natural landscape is not universally shared; It depends on the distance, the "retreat" in relation to this space, and is therefore cleanly urban.
History of western landscape painting
* In ancient times
In the Greek and Roman antiquity, the landscape is painted only as a background or environment intended to put in context a main scene.
The painting of ancient Greece seems to have only discreetly evoked the natural context of a scene centered on the action of gods, heroes or men. However the façade of the tomb of Philip II of Macedonia, discovered in 1977, surprised everyone with a hunting scene that happens in a landscape, clearly drawn by lines of mountains on the horizon, various trees and a bouquet of trees in the First shots, as well as a pile of rochers9. Before this discovery landscape painting seemed to have been ' invented ' by the Romans, later.
Etruscan art, for example, only rarely appears, as in the tomb of the Hunters of the necropolis of Monterozzi where we see the perspective of the landscape beyond the tombs of a canopy.
In the Imperial Roman era, it was a matter of topia, that is to say landscaping schemes and not representation of real landscapes. Alain Roger speaks of "proto-landscape" for antiquity who sees the representation of nature taking more and more importance at the expense of the characters. Karl Schefold tried to clarify this phenomenon: "Now nature surrounds what is purely human, as a stay of something higher, of divine, which encompasses all that is human; The plastic figure does not outweigh the space. " This seems to correspond to the tradition of paganism, where each natural place, here a fragment of "mythological" landscape, is haunted by specific gods. This could also apply to the representation of gardens, but there is a lack of evidence here. The absence of a feeling of piety could be more evident, if you can say, during the 1st century, in the small landscapes of Villa of epoch Claudian or Néronienne. An evolution of taste would manifest itself there. Some typical forms of natural landscapes being used later in the development of private parks; Ideal landscapes of an ancient golden age, evoked by Lucretia and Tibullus, Golden age that the time of Augustus allowed, a time, to hope.
Nils Büttner goes in this direction by stating that painted landscapes are considered from ancient times as a particular genus, topia. He quotes the writer Philostratus, who describes paintings in the form of dialogue between a swamp and distant islands.
* In the Middle Ages, during the pre-Renaissance and the first Renaissance
Throughout the Christian Middle Ages, the landscape is conceived only as a divine work and its representation refers to its creator. The "Landscape commentary", an expression of the Byzantinologue Otto Demus (en), suggests the lyrical accompaniment of the religious figure by the relief (so God is often represented by a mountain).
During the Italian pre-Renaissance of the 13th and 14th centuries Italian primitives invent and introduce the landscape in the background of the paintings to humanize the religious representation and make it accessible because recognizable by their Spectators. They replace the golden funds (from an unreachable paradise) by the blue of the sky and the Biblical landscapes are modelled on those of Italy to be accepted easily. Nevertheless they still serve to make-up to a religious or allegorical scene, or even a portrait.
At the National Gallery of Siena, two small paintings on wood, usually dated from 1338 or 1339, are considered the first "pure landscapes" of the history of Western painting, at a time when the landscape is already a noble genre apart Whole and long time in China. These tables are pieces of altarpieces or panels of chests, they have the simple function of ornaments.
From before the Renaissance, the landscape is sometimes used to express political doctrines. This is the case in the allegory and effects of good and bad Gouvernementd'Ambrogio Lorenzetti in 1338-1339. The wall is of the fresco shows the city and its countryside, full of activity, effects of good government in a country at peace; While the west wall shows them desolate, burnt, travelled by soldiers, in a country at war. But this representation will remain without tomorrow.
The landscape, in the background of a main subject, occupies, in the first Renaissance, an increasing role, whether in Flanders (like the Virgin of Chancellor Rao, with two characters who look at the landscape, in the centre of the painting) or in Italy (the Mona Lisa of Leonardo da Vinci).
* Beginnings of the landscape as a main topic
The art critic has long designated the Antwerp painter Joachim Patina (1483-1524) as the inventor of the landscape as a genre. His contemporary Dürer refers to him as "the good landscape painter". Dürer himself is the first one of which is preserved watercolours and gouaches which show only the landscape, excluding any political or religious anecdote, produced during his journey to Italy in the last years of the fifteenth century; But unlike skater, he did not sell these works, moreover small format.
The painters of the Venetian lagoon, in the forefront of which Giovanni Bellini, discover, with oil painting, the possibility of unifying the painting less by the geometry perspective, than by the coloured light, with layers of superficial glacis. As a result, the place of architecture can be reduced and the landscape take all the place, as in Saint Francis in the desert, as painted by Giovanni Bellini and 1485. With Francis being seized in an explicit gesture of relation to the divine, this gesture qualifies the landscape as a divine creation. But the motif of the landscape-creation is well before this painting. The motif of the "enclosed garden", a fragment of humanized nature, in the annunciations, separated from the "natural" landscape by a fence, is a symbolic form of representing, in part, the mystery of the Incarnation in the small white and red flowers that carpet The greenery, as Georges Didi-Huberman recalled about the Annunciation painted by Fra Angelo at the convent of San Marco.
In the Renaissance, the landscape still serves to express urban utopias, this is the case for a project of landscaping in Florence, showing an ideal urban landscape. The landscape of nature is often perceptible in the representations of interior scenes through the frame of the windows, in the Flemish painting, in particular. It will take an increasingly important place, until it fills the entire surface of the canvas, in the storm of Giorgioe. According to Jaynie Anderson (1996) 24 The most convincing interpretation recognizes in the scene an illustration of the dream of Poliphilia, when the hero discovers, in his quest for antiquity, Venus breastfeeding Cupid with her tears. At the bottom of the landscape, the mix of classic towers and country buildings seems to be an illustration of the Garden of Fate in this book, whose engravings are filled with ancient monuments. The harmonious colourful atmosphere of this instant traversed by a flash made the universal success of the painting.
* In the classical and Baroque period
Landscape painting develops considerably in the seventeenth century in the Netherlands where the Protestant Reformation forbids images in churches. The landscape, the pastoral scenes, are then bought in the markets, and collected. Next to Ruisdael (1628-1682) and Vermeer, which history has retained, a crowd of small maîtresprolifère. Many are making a speciality of the landscape of small format.
In France, Roger de piles distinguishes two types of landscapes, in 1667, in his course of painting by principles:
The heroic landscape, "composition of objects that in their genre derive from art and nature everything that one and the other can produce of great and extraordinary"
Pastoral or rural landscape "representation of countries that appear less cultivated than abandoned to the quirk of nature alone".
These landscape styles differ by the general appearance of the sites as well as by the nature of the figures and the human constructs there, the factories. The painters orient themselves to one or the other style according to their temperament. The landscape painting presents for the artist, he writes, many attractions, because of the diversity of forms and the complexity of the perception of space.
Claude Gellée, known as "Le Lorrain", paints a combination of landscapes that idealize nature, responding more to the painter's feelings than to reality. Focusing more on light than on topography, it opens up a long tradition that will culminate in the nineteenth century.
Almost a century later, Wairimu prefers to classify landscape styles according to the proportion of ideal beauty that the artist placed there:
An ideal representation, "landscapes created with no other help than memories and imagination", consists in workshop, thanks to general knowledge, and does not represent a particular place.
A view represents "the aspects that are faithfully imitated and as they arise".
A mixed landscape or composite view has observed and other parts invented.
A faithful view offers the same appeal as a similar portrait, observes Wairimu; That is to say that this attraction is limited to people who know the site. The ideal beauty, in return, has less reality. This is the category that includes both the best landscapes, and the worst. To escape the critical sense of the Spectator who awakens when the site is uninteresting by himself, the artist uses the luminous accidents that produce a ray of sunshine between two clouds or any other circumstance.
In the heroic landscape is represented an ideal nature, grandiose, tamed by man. The representation is then not credible, but recomposed to sublimate nature and make it perfect; In general, a story is hidden in this type of landscape, whose commonplaces are the presence of elements of Roman architecture, combined with a mountain or a hill and a body of water. The three important centres of this type of representations are Rome, with Annibale Carracci, the creator of this type, and his following the albae, the Domenichino, Poussin..., but also Paris and Holland. In the first half of the eighteenth century, the landscape is the ideal setting for a life sensitive to more natural, in the painting of Watteau, for example.
The pastoral or rural landscape proposes a more naturalistic and humanistic vision, of the harmony between man and nature with Jacob van Ruisdael and Jan van Goyen. In general, it is grandiose, abundant and wild, often represented during storms and thunderstorms. If this vision is more credible, there is no need for a specific place to be represented. Thus, works of this kind are found among the small masters of the Northern schools in the vein of success obtained by Ruisdael and Van Goyen, and also sometimes in the paintings and engravings of Rubens, Rembrandt and Salvator Rosa.
The topographical landscape, or view, which necessarily represents a precise and identifiable place, with a nature presented in a more humble and detailed manner, in any case closer to the observed reality. This genre is quite characteristic of the Dutch school, where the painters are extremely specialized (there are painters of winter landscapes, forests, canals, cities...): Vermeer, with its famous view of Delft, is probably the representative of the More famous. In the second half of the eighteenth century, the landscape became a major issue for a direct experience on the ground, for the sake of accuracy which was the same approach as that of the encyclopaedists. This pre-photographic practice, which is found in the whole of Europe, has been highlighted in photography historians. There are also many topographers such as Claude Joseph Vernet and Thomas Girtin, as well as landscape painters inspired by the ancient like Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, whose studies of heaven on paper prepared or Georges Michel and his views of the distant Paris Seem surprisingly "modern".
* From Preromanticism: Infinite and informing the landscape
In the nineteenth century landscape painting rivals the portrait in terms of quantity; There is a real inflation of these two kinds. The bourgeois mansions are lining their walls. At the same time, the artists ' steps towards the landscape are multiplying. Either one emphasizes the emotion in front of the painting, or on the restitution of the impression in direct contact with a site, or even a particular moment. Some seek the characteristic detail, with the eye of the tourist. The watercolor, the oil treated in a very free manner, goes in the direction of the capture of this particular moment, of a fleeting meteorological phenomenon because of the speed that they allow. Finally, the arrival of photography, around 1850, accentuates the movement of public adhesion to the landscape as a privileged motif, but it also serves as a document for painters and engravers. Hence this proliferation, which is also the reflection of the time.
From Preromanticism, the landscape becomes an actor or producer of emotions and subjective experiences. The picturesque and the sublime appear then as two modes of vision of landscapes, these are composed in the workshop with the relief of views taken on the motif and workshop processes. Pierre Henri de Valenciennes, with other painters from Europe, travels on picturesque sites, celebrated by the first tourists of the eighteenth century, and he carries out numerous studies in oil on prepared paper, easier to carry than Paintings. His studio landscapes retain the spirit of classical painting. On the other hand, Georges Michel does not deviate very much from the suburbs of Paris and draws a lot. His paintings, which capture sublime skies, such as the storm of the Lyon Museum of Fine Arts, inspired by the Dutch painting of the seventeenth century, show a great freedom of touch that will seduce Van Gogh at the end of the nineteenth century.
In England, the spots of Alexander Cozens (associated with preromanticism) are produced intentionally in order to mechanically produce "what roughly resembles the overall effect of a painting", and are intended as an aid to the landscape painter. Informs him promoting the work of the imagination.
For their part, the landscapes of Caspar David Friedrich render an emotion, quasi religious; A figure of the back used as a projection point of the spectator in the space of the landscape for maximum intensity. The precision of the key corresponds to this sharpness of the look. In a completely different sense, but with a precision this time turned to the characteristic detail, the first tourist guides and their engravings, retain the point of view the richest of picturesque elements and produce a consensual look at the Sights and landscapes. A neighbouring approach is to document the national landscape of topographic images, with a concern for the exact detail.
J. Constable and Theodore Rousseau, in their infinitely detailed landscapes, want to put in the table the intimate relationship between man and nature. For Rousseau, Nature is the model of "society" that industrial culture destroys, it must be studied as the scientist with its magnifying glass in a pond. The artist then crashes his easel in the open air, facing the motif. The painters of the School of Barbizon, Rousseau in particular, see indeed in the landscape as correspondences to be built with the society of men, which is then in full mutation and they seek to read in nature as a lesson to decipher. In the years 1950, the painters of Barbizon crossed in the forest of Fontainebleau the group of photographers who roam the same sites, including Gustave the Gray, and they discuss their results at the Auberge de la forêt. The photographer Eugène Cuvelier makes the link between the two groups.
For Turner, in his picture of events, storms or fires, the emotional experience must be transmitted by the body movement, real or figurative. Moreover the artist is actually tied to the deck of the ship, for a direct experience of the storm. Finally, Corot, from his first trip to Italy (1825-28) seeks, in a direct contact with the landscape, the point of view and the framing that make up the future painting, realized on the motif, going further than Pierre Henri de Valenciennes, but in his sense And anticipating the photographers ' approach. This approach is representative of a practice widely shared by the travelling artists since the end of the eighteenth century.
The majority of the landscape paintings, throughout the nineteenth and still in the twentieth century, render a fragment of nature and the emotion it arouses. The processes of the first travelling painters find each time a new life, thus the study on nature possibly taken up in a workshop, is often transposed on a monumental format for the grandiose sites. But the simple charm of a corner of nature is enough of a more modest format.
Amateur and professional photographers do the same especially as soon as the process is democratized in 1885 with Kodak film.
* The exotic
The new World had its painters in the nineteenth century who deployed their talent to create a glorious image of its landscapes, filled with picturesque and sublime, and a certain romanticism. As early as 1830, Thomas Cole and his Hudson River School group produced grandiose images of a composite space: inviolate nature and cultivated nature, over vast formats. He thus wishes to rise above a mere naturalistic observation to create a political vision of the new American society in his universe. A second wave of painters extends the network of his heroic views to the two Americas. The format expands more and more, at the scale of the wide open spaces on the canvases-an idea of the monumental format that was not forgotten by the New York School in the middle of the twentieth century-and every painting, by the intensity of its "photographic rendering" , seems to want to rise to the height of the feat necessary to its composition. Because each site is, of course, out of the norm, never seen, and almost inaccessible, from a spectacular "Hollywood" before the letter. The painters Frederic Edwin Church and Albert Bierstadtrentabilisent their investments by performing paid touring exhibitions, possibly staged, which have a great success. The realization of these workshop paintings is based on studies in situ and supplemented by their own photographic documents of these painters-photographers.
A similar current, albeit less emphatic, touches the fashion of Orientalism. Many travelling painters will draw exotic images from the east to the colonies that the Western powers are carving out in the world. Many enjoy a mimetic reproduction of the natural environment, and bring together "extras" in costume, or very little dressed, "antique", often drawn in the foreground, on foot, as many academy studies. This practice will continue under the auspices, in France, of the Society of Orientalist French painters (founded in 1893) and then of the colonial Society of French Artists (1908-1970). The international Colonial Exhibition of Paris in 1931 gave the opportunity to this taste to manifest itself without reservation.
* Rivalry with photography, or its rejection
In the years following the invention of photography many painters use photography as a document and compete in precision with their model. Some, like Delacroix in nude sessions, compete quickly with the photographic process, then relatively long. The speed of shooting fascinates painters who seek the authenticity of feeling, in a precise moment, the first impression. While others cut out viewpoints, structure, play light and its transient character. It is very probable that some have studied "magnifying glass" the photographs of their contemporaries. The photographer Marcel Caillebotte exchanges very closely with his brother Gustave (1848-1894), who portrays, among other things, the urban landscape of Paris Haussmann, sometimes using the contribution of photography. As for Monet, very close to Nadar in which he directed Boulevard des Capucines and exhibits, Aaron Scharf indicated that the effect of movement, in the photographs of the time, a blur effect, Monet would have produced a similar effect in a spirit of rivalry With the new psychic.
By making the landscape the subject of meticulous observation, attentive to the effects of the incident and thoughtful light and the colors between them, in the open air, Impressionism gives the landscape a very different role than it once had. The impressionist landscape painter tries to create a faithful representation of his own perception, physiological, and to place the observer before the restitution of this perception. This fidelity in the rendition, which is expressed for example in contrasts and "vibrating" touches, is undoubtedly one of the sources of passion for Impressionism (often referred to as "impressionistic miracle" for the analysis of optical phenomena and luminous in the rendering of artists like Claude Monet). The impermanent character of the colors that consist on the surface of the water (as in printing, Sunrise or regattas at Argenteuil, 1872, and the Frog, 1869) requires the invention of several processes: The clearing of borders, the replacement From the shadows by the color-reflection, the introduction of the shake by the unfinished, the translation of the optical sensation by a game of spots floating in space. The close-up "overwrites the perspective and brings the space back to the front." Seurat, with the dotting, tends towards transcription, more scientific than that of the impressionists, optical phenomena. But it also introduces a discreet social dimension in the choice of certain subjects in connection with the metamorphosis of the landscape and society in the industrial Age.
At the turn of the Century (1880-1910) The Western culture was crossed by a symbolic current. In the field of landscape painting, what is then evoked is less a reflection of a sensitive experience, visual than intellectual representations, philosophical, social, imaginary, or simply subjective and emotional. This vast movement of rejection of the transcription of optical phenomena by painting, as art, brings together painters as different as Puvis de Chavannes and Gauguin, Ferdinand Hodler and Van Gogh (the fields of wheat with ravens, 1890) or Matisse (The joy of Live, v. 1905).
Cézanne dies in 1906. The autumn show then organized the first retrospective of Cézanne in 1907. Its impact on the new generation of Matisse, Picasso and so many others will be considerable. From the end of the years 1870 Cézanne broke, in its landscapes, with the accepted formulas; He already finds that the trees, in the sun, "take off in silhouette". The Sainte-Victoire Mountain and the Arc Viaduct, of the years 1882-1885, generalized this observation. Identical colors intervene here on the different planes of the space, which contracts. The same key, vibrating, parallel, intervenes on different planes. Many "rhymes" continue this construction of the ensemble, responding, here and there, on the canvas. For him, the Louvre was a source of teaching, an opportunity to reflect. He often evokes Poussin and Veronese. The process of Cézanne, between 1880 and 1906, made of correspondences between shapes, of vibrating keys, of identical colors produced, according to Pierre Francastel "the unity of all parts of the figurative image". The whole painting is thus advancing on us, the distant merging with the close. This frontality was often noticed and commented on afterwards. verticality, this painting "standing", coincides, in the years 1890-95, with subjects that seem to correspond, for Meyer Schapiro, to the "inner World of Solitude, despair and exaltation [which] penetrates certain landscapes of this epoch," and these Real "portraits" of isolated pines. Cézanne also studies the model and builds a method. Around 1900, the watercolour in the Pistachio, twisted, decentric clearly manifests its unity: The Tree, the sky and the mountain Sainte-Victoire, all are shown on par, collected by fragments of the same size, placed according to a regular rhythm. As for the pattern, the volume of the branches by the shadow: The line of pencil, from the lightest to the thickest, already evokes the light and the intense shadow. The areas of intense shadow are increased by strokes of pale blue brush, and occasionally violet, at the darkest. Naked paper, in reserve, means light. Yellow accompanies the scoring of the pattern. This simple solution, the yellow-white-blue sequence, and its rhythm on the paper Cézanne also used them for other landscapes, around 1902-06. The watercolour was then "like the laboratory of its pictorial innovations". The innovations of Cézanne tend to "achieve" nature, to give it a concrete form according to personal motivations, it is never fashion effects, addressed to the public. As the curators of the exhibition of 2005 point out, referring to his remarks: for Cézanne nature is "certainly not simply the landscape, but the real in general".
Landscape Painting in Ancient Far East
* Chinese Landscape Painting
Landscape painting, the national tradition
The landscape played a major role in traditional Chinese painting. In principle this landscape is an ideal vision, even the evocation of a memory. Very seldom, and only for views of residences and palaces This is a faithful and detailed view of a motif. For these architectures The Cavalier perspective is a rule until the meeting of the Catholic missionaries.
In the ancient Chinese Empire, there were two major categories of painters: professional painters and literate painters, to whom the category of painters of the academy Hanlin of painting, court painters, with various formations . The first ones do not receive a landscape control. The latter, having in principle a painter's training, perform alongside portraits, prestigious commissions, such as the celebration of an event that involves the courtyard, and the landscape, the buildings constitute a majestic setting at the event. Finally, the literate painters, of Confucian culture but also Buddhist or Taoist, or both, practice, in general, amateurs and assert their difference, compared to the two other categories by a very personal style, although always in reference to of previous great painters. They are the ones who left the vast majority of the masterpiece of the landscape in China. In principle they give or exchange their paintings, except during the Qing dynasty where many, having no charge, lived from their painting. Their practice was taken up in Korea from the Joseon Dynasty.
Chinese painters articulate their own pictorial language in ink and water, on silk or paper. Roll sizes vary: in height and hanging, or in width, portable rollers. Finally the landscape on a range is practiced since the time of the earlier Han (206 BCE-9 CE). It is also painted on large screens, the silk is then stretched on a solid frame, which is ensured on the ground by a very stable wood structure.
In China, the paint, the forms produced, their ink and water matter and what they evoke from the landscape tend towards the natural dynamics of emptiness, fullness and breath. Careful observation of a Chinese painting often shows one or more characters whose small size accentuates the immensity of the landscape. The presence of man in the landscape evokes a "story", introduces a narrative dimension that takes place from right to left on a portable roll, a fan, and from bottom to top, in a vertical roller. But man is often absent, and the landscape can have a more exclusively symbolic dimension. Thus, the six gentlemen painted by Ni Zan in 1345, evokes in their solitude, far from the high mountains (an evocation of the Yuan power, in Peking) which they are separated by a vast empty expanse, six different personalities, but all at the haughty allure, this Which is a sign of their moral value. The comments, the poems affixed either by the painter or by friends or successive owners, usually illuminate the scope of the landscape for different sensibilities and histories, in the Far Eastern culture.
Principles of Pictorial Shanshui
In China, before being a landscape painting, the Shanshui designates a highly socialized natural space. We talk about the culture of Shanshui (Shanshui Wenhua) which gives the opportunity to collectively appreciate famous sites, on which social groups are found and enjoy collectively the spectacle of nature. This term therefore designates a type of natural, non-urban landscape, or its representation, and which always contains calligraphy inscriptions. A geographical site must include an inscription to be a Sanshui landscape. These calligraphies are then to be considered as forms of graphic expression and as literary content, poetic style or other. The Chinese art of Shanshui landscape painting served as a model for the design of the Chinese garden, accompanied by calligraphy inscriptions on rocks, steles or other supports.
A Shanshui painting is composed around a main element: Mountain and water. It is built to be "read" from bottom to top, in the case of a vertical composition, vertical or wall roller, or even a vertical album sheet. It is built to be "read" from right to left in a horizontal roll or a horizontal album sheet. It leads the look by playing on the length of the "Journey" inside the painting.
When a Chinese painter makes a Shanshui painting, he does not try to reproduce in an illusionist way what he has seen in nature, he sometimes works without ever seeing such a site, but he evokes sensations and thoughts in pictorial form and Literature that comes from its relation to the landscape by a set of allusions associated with each element in the landscape and the effects of "resonances" involved in the inscription. These "resonances" concern literary works, personalities and places-for example the seven Sages of the Bamboo forest, the said from the spring to peach blossoms of Tao Yuanming, the Battle of the Red Cliff, Lake Dongting
At the time of the northern Song, in the conception of the painting of scholars who forged at that time and where the painter must be in unison of the world, his painting is no longer the reproduction of it but a representation that manifests the principles. The meditation practised by the poet and painter Su Shi, must bring him into a state of inner emptiness, to be more receptive if not even "inhabited" by the movements of the universe. He then lets act in him the Tao, having, according to the explicit formula: "Hills and ravines within it". Moreover, the Chinese literate painter, since Su Shi but especially after the Yuan, has the principle to react immediately to his mental image when this vision allows him to realize his painting as spontaneously as possible.
* Korean Landscape Painting
Landscape painting in Korea is highly appreciated and practiced. In Korea from the Joseon period Confucianism was chosen by the dynasty to raise the country with an administration made up of scholars recruited on examination. The Chinese tradition of the painting of scholars is widely practiced. The first landscapes come from imaginary visions in relation to a narrative that is offered to meditation and commentary. The dream trip to the land of the peach blossom is a typical example and the fantastic nature of the landscape is imposed by history itself.
This tradition of the imaginary, idealized landscape is abandoned by some innovative eighteenth-century painters. They then practice the view taken on nature. These views of famous sites think themselves in a very different spirit, if not opposite, to the idealized landscape painting that had still been going on for centuries in China. The most famous of them, a literate painter, Jeong Seon (1676-1759), is one of the leaders of this jingyeong, movement of the "authentic View".
The screen painting gave rise to very stylized landscape visions in the nineteenth century. Their very coded meaning made them elements of the throne room, placed behind it.
Distant heir to the two traditions, the Chinese tradition and that of the Jingyeong, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, an Jung-sik (1861-1919) has been able to restore all its meaning to the two types of landscapes, the portrait of a place and the scene in a landscape more or less IMA which shows. The attachment of this court painter to the tradition, at least until 1915, and during the period of Japanese colonization, is nuanced by the introduction of the centered, Western perspective. He taught in the first art school in Korea, under the patronage of the king. They gave the first outdoor painting classes. To define itself, this institution introduced the western term "art" into Korean culture.
* Japanese Landscape Painting
In the Heian period (794-1185), Japanese painting reproduces the Chinese tradition of painting, and in particular the portable rolls on which history is held. But this new miniature presents characters peculiar to Japan, it is the painting Yamato. It manifests itself clearly in the illustrations of the said of Gengi. The scenes reveal themselves in aerial view, according to the technique of the roofs removed and where the architecture was built in a cavalier perspective. Horizontal strips of clouds or mists (Suyari) often obscure a part. The natural space that environs each scene appears little but the flowering of the trees is carefully detailed. With the Fusuma, sliding doors, adorned with paintings and sometimes landscapes, the byōbu, a screen with one or more sheets, is a usual support in Japan, just like the kakemono, vertical roller, in the alcove, and the tokonoma on the main wall of a reception room. The landscape can be deployed on the screens. Probably the oldest, 11th – 12th century, a narrative scene in a vast landscape of Chinese inspiration testifies to its proximity to Chinese painting, in blue and green, but with attention to evoke the surroundings of Kyoto and the World of birds, which are both Japanese-sensitive.
During the Kamakura period 1185-1333), following the voyages of the monk Eisai (1141-1215), Rinzai Zen Buddhism is implanted in Japan, but does not yet manifest itself in landscape painting. Yamato's painting is at its peak. The illuminated portable rolls put in scenes many stories and the landscape takes a large place; Architectural details and the environment make it possible to identify the sites.
At the time of Muromachi (1333-1573), during the 14th century, large Zen monasteries developed in the Kamakura and Kyoto regions. This has a huge impact on the visual arts. The Suibokuga, a style of monochrome ink painting, transmitted from China Song and Yuan will largely replace the polychrome rolls and screens of the previous periods, the Kanō and Tosa schools. In the seventeenth century, the Rinpa school offers new forms of landscape, more evoked than described, by elliptical processes where a simple part of the landscape-the iris and a small hanging canal, by Ogata Kōrin-suffice to evoke an elegant garden.
The Japanese print, ukiyo-E, in the 18th and 19th centuries, has multiplied the landscapes (Fūkei-GA) and the "Famous views" (Meisho-E). The fame of Hiroshige was at the height of the typical landscapes, globally known today. With the gradual assimilation of the perspective of Western painting by Japanese artists, at the end of the eighteenth Century (Toyoharu (1735-1814) and Toyohiro (1773-1828)) first. Then in the nineteenth century, with Hokusai (1760-1849) and Hiroshige (1797 – 1858), relying on the concept of Meisho-E, one and the other embarked on the realization of long series describing the most beautiful Japanese sites. The Ukiyo-E acquires in this period of the technique necessary to the representation of the famous views of Japan, Fūkei-GA, by treating the space by plans. Hiroshige, on the other, relies on books of study, views taken on the spot, and on his diary, thanks to which he can match the adventures of the Voyage, the life encountered and the nature of the landscape. To all these masters of the Ukyio-E The practice of the engraving allows them to propose variants that introduce nuances in the expression of the space or in the decorative character of the image. For his part, Van Gogh will seize their processes, such as the treatment of space by plans and the use of the A-plat in his studies after Hiroshige, and beyond in his later painting.
Modern Landscape Art
When Picasso painted Horta de Ebro, in 1909, he did not hesitate to transform the real, in the image he gave. There was no palm tree next to this factory, it up. According to Pierre Daix, "it will reach to the purity simplifying of the Negro masks." It is from this simplifying clarity that he will invent the fragmentation of faceted surfaces that take on different light, the whole of which is composed of the volumes in their entirety. All the high times of Picasso's Cubism and Braque drifted from there. ». It applies the counter-perspective of primitive painters of the late Middle Ages (the roofs widen to the "bottom") and the Shadow Divergent or contradictory (a "Shadow" comes forward, the other backward). The landscape painted according to the classical conventions bend to the construction of the painting. The conception of landscapes seems to precede that of the faces and will be applied to the subjects he treats from 1910, in tables proper "cubist".
In 1910, with his friends who had founded the expressionist group Die Brücke, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner spent happy days on the German coast. In the landscape Spielende Nackte Menschen, the arbitrary colors, their rattled on the bodies and in nature, the gestures and movements of each other, all this manifests the close connection between men and women, and with their natural environment. One is the opposite of the dark costumes and the compassed mines of their contemporaries, in the cultural environment of industrial modernism. The landscape, as it is treated by the expressionist, most often involves these same effects: arbitrary colors, violent contrasts, broken lines in the composition with the ambition to find a pictorial expression adjusted to a new Vital feeling that they all shared.
Mondrian, created between 1900 and 1910, landscapes whose symbolist character is reinforced by the framing and the intensity of the colours. Then, feeling close to the research spirit of Braque and Picasso he arrives in Paris at the end of 1911. Its Parisian landscapes are often built on the motif of walls covered with posters, where the verticality of the wall coincides with the support of the canvas. And in 1914-15, in several studies of a pier that advances in the ocean, vertical on the horizon, black on white, it orients towards a non-figurative non-objective painting, where it will reduce its means, gradually and drastically, to some Pure colors with black and white.
According to André Lhote, Cubism, as he hears it in 1939, proposes a return to the compound landscape. It is, he said, to produce the signs that express a country, rather than a perspective view of this country, in an anecdotal place and moment. The expressionist abstraction, non-geometric, will withdraw, from the earliest compositions of Kandinsky, a large part of the detailed description of the landscape by seeing the mark of intangible forces, and this from his years within the Blue Rider ( 1911-1914). It is necessary to retain the intention of some painters of abstraction who find in the landscape this same type of inspiration, although one often uses to them the expression "abstract landscaping" and painters non Figurative: one can in this connection Evoke the Moal, the Manesser, or Zao Wou-Ki, which is attached to the lyrical abstraction, among many others.
Edward Hopper (1882-1967) is known for having been able to make loneliness, that can emanate simply from a point of view on a place, a house on the other side of a railroad track (house near the railroad track, 1925), or a sailboat, in good weather. The sentiment provided by such paintings will make it an essential reference for the American noir film, Hitchcock's for Psychosis (1960), in particular. In the attention to some typical features of the American landscape have associated it with the artists of the "American Scene", but the importance of these landscape paintings holds much more to their universal message. American figuration in the mid-twentieth century saw the success of the Précisionnistes, as Charles Sheeler (1883-1965). In addition, the landscapes around Taos (New Mexico) of Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986) seem to adhere to the local colour in the soft matter of its lands and evoke large, half-abstract bodies in the strange forms of the arid landscape.
A personality typical of surrealism but practicing a painting far removed from the other painters of the group, Salvador Dali often used a trade attentive to detail, like that of Meissonnier, which he said to admire, to build an imaginary world. The memory of the landscapes located in the Empordà, in the area of Cadaqués, Port Lligat and Figueres, find their place in the distance, as in soft Construction with boiled beans. Premonition of the Civil War painted in 1936.
In China, a generation of painters trained in Western modern Art in the years 1920, promotes the emergence of a new image of the nation, "left-wing" vision, inspired by the expressionist engravings of European artists such as Munch and Groser. The landscape, sometimes industrial, often agricultural, serves as a framework for the workers ' bodies seized in the effort. The years 1950 see the return of the classic Chinese landscape, in ink and colours on paper, but monumentalisé in the modern world, with bridges, port infrastructures, etc. that praise the modernization. These are sometimes collective works performed in provincial painting academies, such as that of Jiangsu. In the same years, the influence of the art of the USSR, of Soviet Socialist Realism, promotes the powerful effects of matter in oils on canvas of large format, as this spring arrives in Tibet of 153 × 234 cm, in 1954, of Dong Xiwen (1914-1973). In his proclamation ceremony of the new state, of the same author in 1953 (230 × 405 cm) The scene of the foreground takes place in front of a plain on the horizon well cleared, filled by an anonymous crowd in order of battle with flags and banners in the wind. During this time the landscape in ink on paper, in Taiwan and in the diaspora, reconnects with the spirit of calligraphy. It is, for example Liu Guosong, quasi-abstract paintings like this lost in the thick clouds, from 1963. Since the years 2000, a courageous painting has forced the gaze towards the political and social context, ecological in the landscape of today's China. This is a challenge raised by many modern Chinese artists. Liu Xiaodong, in his series on the dam of the Three Gorges: displaced Populations (2003), following a coherent approach, thus reconnects with the painting of the outdoors, and puts the persons in question with a brio necessary by quick poses, Respectful of these people in their places of life, at the heart of glaring questions.
Western art traverses during the years 1950-1970 a period of experimentation and it is necessary to wait for the years 1980 for the landscape painting to reappear, in this spirit of research. punctually It is part of the approach of some artists: David Hockney, Portrait of an artist (Pool with Two Figures) of 1972, Malcolm Morley and the artists attached to the hyperrealism, Andy Warhol, with the Eruption Vesuvius (1985), and the motive of death Which hovers, taken up in the images of Vesuvius, whatever the nature, from the institution of the Grand Tour to our postcards. This deeply innovative spirit is found in the forests, in the frozen lands, of oily paint and simply legible words, by Anselm Kiefer, laden with complex references and memory. The painting of Gerhard Richter maintains the same type of relationship, intellectual, with the landscape as a pictorial genre. If he refers to the troubled relationships that the perception of painting maintains today with the photographic or television medium, it is by means of paintings whose status varies to the extreme. Thus in September, from 2005 (MoMA) the reference to the photographic image (taken from Der Spiegel magazine) of the two towers of the World Trade Center is done in two forms: by a nuanced and melted passage of oil that poses the buildings, the sky and a vast expanse of smoke , Vertical evocations. And, moreover, with small materials scraped horizontally that glide on this landscape, become closer then with a simple reflection, blurred. The format chosen is precisely in the proportions of a television screen of the time.